Thursday, November 5, 2015

Invasive Species Action Alert!!!

The Fall can be a great time to get outside and work on eradicating non-native invasive plants.  Several woody invasive plants are particularly vulnerable at this time of year, and into the winter months as well.  Some of these species include the shrubs, Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii), autumn olive (Eleagnus umbellate), and burning bush (Euonymous alatus).  Non-native invasive trees that can be treated this time of year include tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), mimosa (Albizia julibrissin), Amur cork tree (Phellodendron amurense), and callery (Bradford) pear (Pyrus calleryana), as well as the non-native invasive woody vines like Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), and winter creeper (Euonymus fortunei).

Cut-stump and basal bark applications can be used to target non-native invasive woody species year-round.  Another option this time of year can be a foliar application to the leaves of woody invasive plants.  Many desirable native species go dormant before the non-native invasive species, especially the semi-evergreen Japanese honeysuckle and winter creeper.  Executing a foliar application at this time of year can avoid non-target impacts.  Remember that cutting without using an herbicide will likely lead to the woody plant re-sprouting, often with greater vigor, next growing season.  In addition, care should be taken with two of the aforementioned species. Tree-of-heaven and Oriental bittersweet have a defensive mechanism that is not to be taken lightly.  Once cut, or injured, the plants of those two species will send up sprouts from nodes on their roots that will make an infestation worse, so the preferred treatment method for those species is a basal bark application. 

For more information about invasive species in your region, and identification and treatment options, please visit our website at or send me, Kevin Rohling, an email at

This message was brought to you by the River to River Cooperative Weed Management Area with support from our partners at the United States Forest Service Northeastern Area State & Private Forestry.

Friday, January 30, 2015

Sales of aquatic invasive Brazilian elodea halted in Illinois

Brazilian elodea, an aquatic plant recently listed as an injurious species in Illinois (Administrative Code 805), was found for sale in southern Illinois.  Read the following blog, Lakeside View, from the Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant program to see what happened!

Saturday, August 23, 2014

The potential agricultural impact of Japanese chaff flower

 Could Japanese chaff flower have agricultural impact?  A recent field day at Southern Illinois University's Belleville Research Station taught growers how to recognize the plant if they see it in their fields.  See the information below with a link to the full article from Illinois Farmer Today.

"Achyranthes japonica, or Japanese chaff flower, is a relatively new invasive species that is plaguing the Ohio River Valley. This species is a relative to some prominent agriculture weeds and grows in both forested areas and along agriculture field margins. Thus, all land owners/managers should be aware of this rapidly spreading species and know how to identify and control it. Southern Illinois University, the only university conducting research on this species in the U.S., did this at their annual Belleville Research Field Day in July. Over 150 people attended the field day where they learned, in part, about Japanese chaff flower and its threat to their properties. Some of the threats posed by this species is that it has continual germination throughout the growing season, it is a perennial species, and it can spread rapidly by a variety of vectors. Also, Japanese chaff flower has about a 97 percent germination rate; whereas other weed species in the family have about a 14 percent germination rate. ​With help from field days like this, information about Japanese chaff flower, and other invasive species, reaches the public in a positive way. Please do not hesitate to report any sightings of Japanese chaff flower. "   --Lauren Schwartz

Article: Next palmer amaranth or waterhemp?

Wednesday, May 28, 2014

Japanese chaff flower: A rising threat to southern Illinois

Article by Lauren M. Schwartz, PhD Candidate, Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
Lauren Schwartz presents her research at the 19th Annual Central Hardwood Forest Conference.  Photo by David Gibson.

Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai (Amaranthaceae), or Japanese chaff flower, is a relatively new exotic species found in southern Illinois. Japanese chaff flower is native to eastern and southeastern Asia, but was first found in the United States in 1981 along the Tug Fork River, a tributary of the Big Sandy River in Martin County, Kentucky. It is unknown how this species was first introduced to the United States, but it is believed to coincide with railroad traffic. This invasive species has quickly spread along the Ohio River and its tributaries. Today, Japanese chaff flower can be found in every county along the Ohio River from West Virginia to Illinois, and has been confirmed in Missouri along the Mississippi River in 2011. It is currently found in nine states (West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia).

Photos by Chris Evans, IWAP Invasive Species Campaign.

           Japanese chaff flower is a perennial and herbaceous species that is easy to identify. It has been determined that this species becomes perennial at an early growth stage, by the time it reaches three nodes. Japanese chaff flower’s leaves are opposite and simple. The stem at ground level is red, which is seen in other pigweed species. The flowers occur on erect spikes at the end of the stems and upper branches. The flowers, which lack petals, occur in tight clusters and diverge at nearly a right angle, which gives the flowers a bottle-brush look. As the fruits mature, the spikes elongate and the fruits lay flat against the spike. 
Photo by Chris Evans, IWAP Invasive Species Campaign.

The fruits have two stiff bracts that help in dispersal. Japanese chaff flower primarily disperses its seeds in water during heavy floods or by attaching to clothing, shoes, hair, or animal fur. “Becoming entangled or ‘hitch-hiking’ is a dispersal mechanism associated with Japanese chaff flower seed,” said Travis Neal, a master’s student at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. “Its dispersal is enhanced during particular life stages, which enables Japanese chaff flower to readily invade native plant communities of southern Illinois as well as the surrounding Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys.” Japanese chaff flower can be found growing in areas with partial sun and moist soils, but can also grow in heavily shaded and dry area. Populations of this species have been found in bottomland forests, along riverbanks, along agriculture field margins, and in roadside ditches.
     Japanese chaff flower starts growing in late spring and flowers in the late summer. Flowers can continue to develop into the early fall, even when seed is starting to be produced. As the plants die off in the fall, the stems and remaining seed turn an orange-brown color. The dead plant stand can remain erect even into the winter until heavy snow, ice, or floods cause the stems to break. The high germination rate (~ 62% in drought years and ~94% in average years) and the high seed output (up to 1,000/plant) of this species make it a strong competitor for the following year. It has similar competitive capabilities of other species in the same family, such as Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) or common waterhemp (Amarnathus tuberculatus).   In addition, this species has been observed to outcompete other invasive species, such as Japanese stilt grass (Microstegium vimineum). 
Orange-brown stems from the previous year's growth can be seen in the background of this photo taken in March 2014.  From left to right: Travis Neal, Master's Student and chaff flower researcher at Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Dr. David Gibson, chaff flower principle investigator at SIUC, and Scott Flynn, Field Scientist for Dow AgroSciences.  Photo taken by Karla Gage.

Humans are the main concern of spread for this species. After any activities (i.e. hiking, camping, hunting, fishing) in an infested area, you should make sure to thoroughly clean clothing, boots, equipment, and pets to help prevent any further spread especially in the fall when seeds are mature. Although little is known about the management of this invasive species, initial treatments of triclopyr at a 2% solution appeared to be most effective. Other herbicides, such as glyphosate, aminopyralid and 2,4-D ester, are also effective at higher doses. The perennial plants of this species are highly susceptible to foliar applications of broad leaf systemic herbicides, which makes them a good management tool in the field. Hand pulling or digging large, mature stands is not feasible due to the extensive root systems. If you find Japanese chaff flower in Illinois, please report the location to Karla Gage at

Updated distribution map of Japanese chaff flower infestations in southern Illinois.

Contact Information for Lauren Schwartz:
420 Life Science II, MC 6509
1125 Lincoln Drive
Southern Illinois University
Carbondale, IL 62901

Thursday, May 15, 2014

Regional Invasive Species Awards Ceremony

On Friday, May 9th, 2014, as the opening ceremony to the Cache River Nature Fest and as a celebration of the Governor’s proclamation of May as Invasive Species Awareness Month, a Regional Awards Ceremony was hosted by Shawnee Resource Conservation and Development Area, Inc. (RC&D) and the River to River Cooperative Weed Management Area (CWMA), in order to recognize 15 individuals highly dedicated to invasive plant species control work in Southern Illinois.  These individuals recognize that one of the biggest challenges facing conservation today is the widespread problem of non-native invasive species, which destroy habitat for native plants and animals.  The award recipients have all taken their knowledge of invasive species one step further, acting with responsibility to create a positive impact on the diversity of habitats in Southern Illinois.   Several CWMA partnering organizations and Steering Committee members were present to support the recipients and their work.  The award recipients and their contributions are as follows:

Illinois Invasive Species Strike Team work:  Tharran Hobson (TNC), Caleb Grantham (TNC), Nick Seaton (TNC), Bob Lindsay (IDNR) – Tharran is the River Program Restoration Manager for The Nature Conservancy’s Illinois River Program, and the program manager for our local Southern Illinois Invasive Species Strike Team, a role in which he helps to direct critical conservation efforts in the region.  He was nominated for his persistence in pursuing the implementation of the Strike Team grant funding.  Without Tharran’s efforts, the Strike Team contract would not have been processed, and the team would not have been hired.  Strike Team members Caleb Grantham and Nick Seaton were recognized for their spring 2014 work.  By mid-April, they had assisted with 1,787 acres of prescribed burning on high quality sites in Southern Illinois, including conservation work to protect a state endangered plant population.  Caleb and Nick are graduates of the Southern Illinois University Carbondale (SIUC) Department of Forestry B.S. program.  Caleb and Nick controlled invasive plants with IDNR as 2013 summer interns, directed by Heritage Biologist, Bob Lindsay.  Bob has continued to be a critical mentor for the Strike Team, and he was responsible for continuing invasive species control on more than 8 critical sites, during the 2013 lapse in funding for the Strike Team.

Shawnee National Forest’s Invasive Species Management Environmental Assessment - Richard Blume-Weaver (USFS) – Richard was instrumental in keeping the Forest’s Invasive Species Management Environmental Assessment on track and moving forward.  This management decision allows the Forest to actively treat invasive species on about 1800 acres across Southern Illinois.  The plan focuses on controlling four of our priority invasive species (kudzu, bush honeysuckle, Chinese yam and garlic mustard).  An additional focus area is the control of invasive species in 23 natural areas that are in need of protection.  Richard’s dedication and persistence to the management of invasive species on the Shawnee National Forest and Southern Illinois are an asset to the entire region.

Unity Point School Invasive Species Education: Chris Midden – Chris teaches science at Unity Point School in Makanda, Illinois.  He has developed a unit on invasive species, which he covers while teaching ecology, and he takes his entire 6th grade class of students into the field at the Green Earth, Inc. (GE) Chautauqua Bottoms site, to pull garlic mustard and learn first-hand about the effects of invasive species on native biodiversity.  This GE site is known for a diverse population of native spring ephemeral species, and is the opportune place to teach hands-on lessons of the impacts of invasions.  We would like to thank Chris and Unity Point and all the 6th grade students for this valuable contribution to Invasive Species Education, as well as the positive impact on garlic mustard control at this biodiverse site in Carbondale. 

Volunteer Public Education Efforts:  Dr. Andrew West – Dr. West was recognized for extensive involvement in numerous volunteer work days, public presentations and workshops, and for leading hikes for the public to discuss native biodiversity and the impacts of invasive species on the region of Southern Illinois.  He has worked for almost 40 years as a land and natural resource manager, 30 years with IDNR and brief stints with the U.S. Forest Service, Fish and Wildlife Service, and Missouri Dept. of Conservation. He was site superintendent at Trail of Tears State Forest for 15 of his 30 years with the State of Illinois.  He continues to use his knowledge to assist landowners with invasive species control in Southern Illinois, and our regional efforts in Invasive species control are strengthened through his work.

Volunteer Control Work with Green Earth, Inc.:  Mike Long and Chris Long – Mike and Chris have been long-time supporters of Green Earth, Inc. (GE) in Carbondale, IL.  GE provides an important function to Carbondale residents, by preserving green spaces within an urban environment, which make nature accessible to people of all backgrounds and promoting environmental education.  The efforts of GE began with the purchase of a 20 acre piece of land over 25 years ago, and now they manage over 190 acres on 6 tracts of land. GE is a non-profit and depends on monetary donations and volunteer efforts to manage their properties. Unfortunately, as natural habitat-urban interfaces, these properties are often plagued by a variety of invasive issues.  Mike and Chris have stepped in to fill the need for invasive species control at some GE sites.  They have adopted GE sites for control, have written a management plan for invasives control, and have paid their employees out-of-pocket to manage invasive plants at these properties.  We thank them for their efforts, for providing this service, and therefore, helping to raise awareness about the issue of invasive species in Carbondale.

Regional Volunteer Invasive Species Control and Outreach:  Bruce Henry - As Rx fire coordinator and crew manager for the Saluki Fire Dawgs, SIUC’s prescribed fire team, Bruce helps facilitate burns on state and private lands, encouraging the promotion of healthy forest ecosystems and the control of invasive species in Southern Illinois.  Bruce assists with GE volunteer workdays as a volunteer and member of the Omega Chapter- Xi Sigma Pi, Honors Society.  Bruce serves as a mentor, sharing his vast knowledge of invasive species control and native plant ID with current Strike Team members, undergraduate students and peers.  He has provided outreach and oversight to a number of garlic mustard "pull-events" with the Sierra Club and local schools, and he has led native plant hikes through Natural Areas in the Cache River Wetlands for local school groups.  He has provided landowners with invasive species control and identification information on his own and through NRCS funded programs.  He volunteered time to travel to Northern Illinois to train the Northern Illinois Strike Team in Jo Davies County.  Bruce is the caretaker of the field house at Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge and provides invasive species control on site. Additionally, Bruce has recently been awarded the position of natural history biologist with the Missouri Department of Conservation for the Southeastern region of Missouri.

Landowner Support and Education through NRCS Programs: Ryan Pankau (NRCS Conservation Forester) – Ryan and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) have been critical supporters and partners in CWMA efforts to control invasive species.  Private landowners own 82% of the forested land in Illinois, and it can be difficult to reach these diverse groups and individuals with technical assistance.  Ryan continues to help with this effort in Southern Illinois, providing invaluable support to landowners.  He speaks about NRCS assistance programs whenever the opportunity arises and has helped with organization and implementation of several workshops and trainings for landowners in the identification and control of invasive species.  He has provided much needed assistance in conservation issues in Southern Illinois by reaching out to landowners and going above and beyond what is expected as NRCS Conservation Forester. 

Regional Training of Natural Resources Professionals and Volunteers: Sonja Lallemand - Sonja is being recognized for creating and implementing very successful programming that is becoming an established standard within the regional conservation community.  The Master Naturalist training that Sonja has brought to Southern Illinois is a highly sought-after program with many more individuals wanting the training than the program can accommodate.  To date, this University of Illinois Extension program has graduated approximately 60 students trained for conservation work.  Through training these passionate individuals, Sonja is creating an invaluable resource for all conservation partners, and she is always looking for new ways to engage her students in invasive species issues.

Carbondale Park District Support in Invasive Species Outreach to the Public:  Kathy Renfro – Kathy has been instrumental in developing the partnerships and on-the-ground work for the pilot project of the Illinois Stop the Spread! program.  Illinois Stop the Spread! is focused on educating consumers about the invasiveness and other undesirable characteristics of the Callery (Bradford) pear.  The program is in the preliminary stages, but there is a large education and outreach component, with a positive message, which offers consumers and others a list of locally-available alternatives to Callery pear.  A demonstration planting of these native tree alternatives has recently been established at Attuck’s Park in Carbondale with Kathy’s and Grounds Manager Randy Montgomery’s help.  Kathy’s and Carbondale Park District’s involvement in this campaign has been key in raising awareness of the issues surrounding Callery pear.

Invasive Species Control on Private Lands: Gary and Sharon Swisher - Gary and Sharon have earned this recognition for invasive species control efforts on their own property (~275 forested acres).  They are very active at controlling invasives and consistently conducting monitoring and follow-up treatments.  They truly understand what is needed to effectively control invasives species.  As landowners, they benefit from controlling invasives, their children benefit from a healthy future forest and their neighbors benefit from a reduced seed source in the community.  Gary has worked at controlling invasives on his neighbor’s property and has been an influential example of success.  By contributing to the reduction of invasive populations in Jackson County and by influencing neighboring landowners to do the same, the Swishers have truly exemplified excellence in addressing invasive species.

Recognition of Legislative Support in Invasive Species Issues: State Representative Brandon Phelps – Rep. Phelps was the chief sponsor of the Bill to amend the Illinois Exotic Weed Act by adding kudzu and six non-native varieties of buckthorn.  This was the first bill Rep. Phelps served as a sponsor, during his freshman year as a legislator.  These additions to the exotic weed list were very significant. Through this law, it became illegal to buy, sell or plant these plants in Illinois.  Buckthorn has created extensive damage to thousands of acres in northern Illinois and anyone who has traveled to the southern United States has seen the overwhelming impact of kudzu.  While this bill became law ten years ago, it was the last time the Illinois Weed Act was amended, creating a statewide impact.   We recognize Rep. Phelps for his important legislative contribution. 

The RC&D, CWMA, and all partners truly appreciate the efforts and successes of these individuals to further our regional invasive species control efforts.

 Pictured from left to right: (back) Gary Swisher, Bruce Henry, Sonja Lallemand, Dr. Andrew West, Tharran Hobson, Caleb Grantham, Chris Long, Ryan Pankau, Richard Blume-Weaver, (front) Mike Long, Kathy Renfro, Chris Midden.  Not pictured: Sharon Swisher, Nick Seaton, Bob Lindsay, and State Representative Brandon Phelps.

For additional photos, please visit the CWMA facebook page here:  
The River to River Cooperative Weed Management Area is a partnership between:
Illinois Department of Natural Resources ∙ Illinois Department of Agriculture ∙ Illinois Department of Transportation ∙ USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service ∙ USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service ∙ USDA Forest Service Shawnee National Forest ∙ Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge ∙ Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge ∙ Middle Mississippi River National Wildlife Refuge ∙ The Nature Conservancy ∙ Shawnee Resource Conservation & Development Area, Inc. ∙ University of Illinois Cooperative Extension ∙ Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Tuesday, November 5, 2013

Volunteers restore woodland at Dixon Springs Agricultural Center

Twenty-six volunteers attend a woodland restoration event hosted by the University of Illinois, College of ACES - Forest Resource Center and the River to River Cooperative Weed Management Area (CWMA) to remove invasive burning bush or fire shrub from the forest around the Dixon Springs Agricultural Center. 

Dixon Springs Agricultural Center (DSAC), established in 1934 on 5,100 acres of un-glaciated land, is special place nestled within the Shawnee National Forest (NF) - dedicated to agronomic research that connects land managers in Southern Illinois to research priorities of the University of Illinois College of ACES and Veterinary Medicine.  The DSAC facility sits directly adjacent to the Shawnee NF within an area of Illinois designated as a Conservation Opportunity Area (COA) by the Illinois Wildlife Action Plan.  There are three COA’s in the southernmost 11 counties of Illinois.  These COA’s are areas where there are important wildlife and habitat resources, coupled with the potential networks and organizations to conserve these resources.  One of the most important aspects of conserving wildlife and habitat resources is the management of invasive species.

Burning bush has been prohibited from sale in three states (Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Hampshire) because of its invasive potential.  Invasion of burning bush, like other woody invasive species, may out-compete native forest understory plants and cause decreased biodiversity in forests.  Invasive burning bush can be found in Southern Illinois, in forested land surrounding homes or neighborhoods with ornamental plantings.  It is estimated that burning bush has been in landscaping around the DSAC buildings for fifty years, and now hundreds of plants can be found in the forest understory.  Recognizing the problem, Jim Kirkland, director of the Forest Resource Center, decided to plan a Woodland Restoration Event in coordination with the River to River CWMA to preserve the natural resources around the DSAC. 

On Saturday, November 2nd, 2013, volunteers gathered in the DSAC dormitory basement to learn how to identify burning bush and three other woody invasive species – bush honeysuckle, autumn olive, and multiflora rose.  Individuals represented all skill levels in land management, and were taught all the techniques necessary for invasive species control.  Several groups were represented, including the Southeastern Illinois Prescribed Burn Association (SIPBA), Illinois Forestry Association, University of Illinois Master Gardeners and Master Naturalists, Southern Illinois University Department of Forestry and Society of American Foresters Student Chapter, and Smith Tree Farm LLC.  Volunteers with chainsaws, hand saws, and loppers cut the woody plants at 6 inches or less from the ground surface.  Then certified pesticide applicators applied a 25% solution of glyphosate in water, mixed with blue dye so that it was easy to track the cut surfaces that had been treated.  Cut surfaces were treated within 10 minutes or less to ensure the root system takes up the herbicide.  Since seeds were present, the plants were left in the location where they were cut.  Dragging the plants to another location would have spread the seeds and contributed to the invasive problem in the future.  It is estimated that volunteers were able to control invasive species on approximately 2 acres of DSAC land, mostly focusing on the edges of the woodland, since that is where mature plants were producing the most seed.  

Following the Woodland Restoration Event, volunteers were treated to a meal of hearty bean stew with cornbread and desert, compliments of the Forest Resource Center.  Several volunteers stayed on in the afternoon to hear a presentation for Southeastern Prescribed Burn Association (SIPBA) members by Dr. Charles Ruffner from Southern Illinois University, on identifying the right weather conditions for conducting prescribed burns for land management.

Although much restoration work was accomplished, yearly follow-up events will be necessary to fully restore the woodland.  Thank you to all the volunteers that participated!  If you would like information about similar upcoming events, please contact Karla Gage, River to River CWMA Coordinator at
Please see this link for more event photos.

Friday, October 11, 2013

Forest Invasive Contributes to Fall Foliage Colors

Invasive Species to Watch:  Winged Burning Bush

That’s invasive!? Winged burning bush (Euonymus alatus) is a favored plant in landscaping, and many people are unaware of its aggressive, invasive tendencies once the seeds are dispersed by birds. There are many cultivars of burning bush - loved for its brilliant red fall foliage and its ability to be pruned and shaped into almost any form. Burning bush is hardy up to zone 4, and grows in almost any soil conditions except continually moist soils - one of the reasons it is often overused in the landscape. However, there is a dark side to this horticultural favorite - so dark that it is now banned for sale and propagation in Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. In a study on its invasiveness, cultivars had an estimated seed production that ranged from 588 to 3763 seeds per plant, and 40% of seeds could produce new plants. Therefore, each year, it is conservatively estimated that one burning bush on private property may be sending more than 235 young plants into adjacent land. These new seedlings have the potential to form dense thickets and displace the local native plant species.

It is easily distinguished from native and other invasive look-alikes by the greyish-brown, corky, winged structures on the young green stems. Leaves are about 2 inches long, elliptical with a pointed tip, finely toothed along edges, and oppositely paired along the stem. Small flowers with four yellowish-green petals appear in May. Green fruits mature throughout the summer. In the fall, the outside fruit capsules turn red to brownish-purple and split to reveal fleshy, red arils, which birds disperse. Depending on the cultivar, plants may reach heights of 12 feet tall or more. Unfortunately, burning bush is becoming a common sight in the forests of southern Illinois and is no longer recommended for planting by conscientious land managers. Although a sterile cultivar of burning bush has been developed, there are several native alternatives, which offer very attractive replacements in landscaping, such as red chokeberry (Aronia arbutifolia), large fothergilla (Fothergilla major), Virginia sweetspire (Itea virginica), Blackhaw (Viburn prunifolium), shining sumac (Rhus copallinum), and Eastern wahoo (Euonymus atropurpureus).

There are several ways to control burning bush. Small seedlings can be hand-pulled. Shrubs can be cut and treated with a systemic herbicide, such as glyphosate or triclopyr. Cut surfaces should be treated with herbicide in less than 10 minutes following cutting, so that the cut surface does not dry and prevent herbicide uptake. A basal bark application of herbicide (triclopyr in oil) may also be used if cutting the plant is not desirable. A foliar herbicide application may be used at a low rate (2 – 4%) for small plants. Always follow label instructions when applying herbicides and wear the appropriate protective gear.  

Please help encourage others to landscape with native or non-invasive species. If you find escaped burning bush in Illinois natural areas, please report these sightings by visiting EDDMaps at the River to River CWMA website (  Please contact Karla Gage, CWMA coordinator, with questions: 618-998-5920 or  

Reference: Brand, M. H., Lubell, J. D. & Lehrer, J. M. Fecundity of Winged Euonymus Cultivars and Their Ability to Invade Various Natural Environments. HortScience 47, 1029–1033 (2012). 

Article originally published in the September 2013 Williamson County Soil and Water Conservation District newsletter.